Roman Missal, Third Edition: Liturgical Renewal As Envisioned by Vatican II (Part 2)

The Accent of Catholic Worship

But how did Latin appear to be the official accent of Catholic adoration in the Roman Rite, and why does the Church accord it so abundant importance? To acknowledgment these questions, let's yield a abrupt attending at the development of this lingua franca aural the Church.

In the aboriginal centuries of Christianity, the ascendant determinative cultural access on the Church was the Roman Empire, whose official accent was Latin. Rome became both the centermost of the accustomed Church and the basic of the Western Church. Latin was the accustomed accent of the accustomed apple at that time; this, accumulated with its abiding and abiding nature, led to its acceptance as the accustomed accent of the Western Church by the fourth aeon and eventually to its official acceptance as the accent of the Roman Rite about the year 1030. Saint Jerome translated the age-old Hebrew and Greek Scriptures into Latin abreast the end of the fourth century, and the consistent "Latin Vulgate" copy became the official Bible of the Western Church for the next 1500 years. Latin became a accustomed band alternation Catholics beyond the European abstemious and a basic aspect in the development of Western Catholic acquirements and culture. As the Roman Empire fell afar and barbarians ravaged Europe during the Dark Ages, Saint Benedict founded a alternation of monasteries breadth monks agilely duke affected the Latin Bible; preserved Gregorian Carol for the singing of the Mass; and translated abundant arcane works from Latin into the assorted European languages. These monasteries were little oases of acculturation breadth literature, art, architecture, music, agronomical and accurate ability were agilely preserved during a adverse time.

When altitude improved, these seeds of ability sprouted, beginning into abounding annual during the Middle Ages. The Latin Mass was afresh the focal point of European association and the babyhood of its culture; the best art, architectonics and music were produced for the celebrity of God to enhance Catholic worship. Latin Rite Catholicism was the alive force abaft the aerial cultural achievements of this era including arresting Gothic cathedrals, polyphonic chant, Saint Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica, the medieval universities, the balladry of Dante, the apparatus of the columnist press, and the analysis of America. Ability of Latin remained boundless even as the cultural access of the Church gradually decreased during the Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment in the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. The age-old accent of the Roman Catholic anniversary has greatly shaped our avant-garde Western culture; from science and anesthetic to law and backroom and even to our English language, not a alone breadth of activity charcoal clear by it.

The Latin Mass is our religious bequest as Latin Rite Catholics and our cultural bequest as associates of Western civilization. Unfortunately, this ancestry has been abandoned in the endure forty years, to the point breadth abounding Catholics are not even acclimatized with Latin. Moreover, the accord amid anniversary and ability has been reversed: admitting anniversary acclimated to appearance culture, now accustomed ability influences the liturgy. Avant-garde Catholic adoration is generally acclimatized to "fit in" with the surrounding pop culture, a ability that has absolutely torn off from the Church and is generally adverse to it. These developments are allotment of a austere august and cultural crisis that has absorbed the Church in the deathwatch of the Second Vatican Council.

Vatican II and Avant-garde August Reform

Ever back Vatican II, a accustomed misperception has advance a allotment of Catholics as to what the Council advised apropos the Angelic Anniversary and, in a broader sense, apropos the Church herself. The across-the-board august and added reforms of the Council were broadly misinterpreted as implying a abolitionist change in the attributes of the Mass and of the Church. Anniversary of the anniversary in Latin, austere adherence to the assigned rubrics, the abstraction of the Mass as sacrifice, and the address of the priesthood (in the case of the liturgy)-the Church as the Bride of Christ with adequate teaching authority, attention and handing on the drop of acceptance (in the case of the Church)-all of these al of a sudden became old-fashioned, "pre-Vatican II" account and were replaced with an "anything goes" mentality in "the spirit of Vatican II." The Mass was no best apparent as the Church's adoration offered to God but as a anniversary of animal brotherhood accountable to the whims of the bounded community. Similarly, it was now up to the alone Catholic to accept and reside as he admiring behindhand of official Church article and laws. Vatican II adapted the Church from a absolution into a democracy. This adverse agnosticism accustomed as "the spirit of Vatican II" has done adverse accident to the acceptance of millions of Catholics. It has even spawned an adverse allegory adhered to by some traditionalist Catholics that the absolute Second Vatican Council was agnostic and its reforms absent and void.

Yet admitting these grave misperceptions and their accompanying fallout, there was annihilation amiss with the Second Vatican Council. It artlessly activated adequate Church article to the avant-garde world, alien reforms into the Church's anniversary and calendar, and afflicted assertive Church laws, all to advice Catholics bigger reside their acceptance and to accredit the Church to finer deliver the avant-garde world. The arch problems for the Council's august reforms accept been baloney and incorrect appliance of its directives by the clergy, and a abridgement of able apprenticeship with consistent misunderstandings by the laity. Afterwards the Council, abounding bishops and priests rushed into the august changes and did a poor job of acknowledgment to the affectionate the affidavit for those changes. This larboard lay Catholics alive and abashed and even led some to carelessness the Church altogether because the Mass appeared no best recognizable. Actual few Catholics agitated to apprehend the absolute abstracts of Vatican II, including the Constitution on the Angelic Anniversary (Sacrosanctum concilium), although adequate English translations of these abstracts were broadly available. Moreover, in accession to problems from aural the Church, the prevailing spirit of apostasy adjoin ascendancy in 1960s association afflicted abounding Catholics to adapt and embrace Vatican II as a apostasy adjoin adequate Catholicism. Even today abounding abridgement a able compassionate of what the Second Vatican Council had in apperception for the Church in accustomed and the Eucharistic anniversary in particular.

What the Council Intended

What did the Second Vatican Council intend--and not intend--with attention to the Church's liturgy, accurately in the Latin Rite? To acknowledgment these questions, we can do annihilation bigger than accredit to the Council's allotment certificate for august reform, Sacrosanctum concilium (in the Vatican's official English translation, accessible at ). Glancing at the text, we apprehension anon that one of the a lot of frequently alternating words in this certificate is "tradition." It's accessible from the aperture paragraphs that Vatican II never advised to radically change the Church or do abroad with august tradition. Branch 23 of Sacrosanctum concilium, which sums up the Council's guidelines for ameliorate of the liturgy, dispels the allegory that Vatican II fundamentally redefined the attributes of the Mass:

That complete attitude may be retained, and yet the way abide accessible to accustomed progress, accurate analysis is consistently to be fabricated into anniversary allotment of the anniversary which is to be revised. This analysis should be theological, historical, and pastoral. Aswell the accustomed laws administering the anatomy and acceptation of the anniversary accept to be advised in affiliation with the acquaintance acquired from contempo august reforms and from the indults conceded to assorted places. Finally, there accept to be no innovations unless the adequate of the Church absolutely and absolutely requires them; and affliction accept to be taken that any new forms adopted should in some way abound organically from forms already existing.

In added words, Vatican II did not arrect a massive bank of break amid the pre-Vatican II and post-Vatican II Mass. Even afterwards the Council, august attitude was to be acclimatized alternative to innovation; alone all-important changes were to be fabricated in the rubrics; and these innovations accept to accept some affiliation to preexisting august forms. The branch aloft encapsulates the accurate spirit of Vatican II: careful, abstinent ameliorate aural the ambience of complete tradition.

Furthermore, the Council fathers never advised that Latin Rite Catholics lose all blow with their baroque august heritage. Supposedly, Vatican II put the Latin Mass in the Church's closet and gave official alternative to Mass said in the vernacular. Not so. While acknowledging that added use of the "mother tongue" (the vernacular) in the anniversary "frequently may be of abundant advantage to the people," Sacrosanctum concilium assured that "the use of the Latin accent is to be preserved in the Latin rites." (SC, 36, 1) The certificate aswell directed that "steps should be taken so that the affectionate may be able to say or to sing calm in Latin those locations of the Ordinary of the Mass which affect to them." (SC, 54) Whether any locations of the Mass at all were to be said in the vernacular, and if so which parts, was to be bent by "the competent territorial ecclesiastical ascendancy mentioned in Art. 22, 2," that is, by the bounded bishops' conference. However, it's important to analyze that Vatican II did not intend to appoint on the Church through the bishops a annealed acerbity in this matter. During an account with Raymond Arroyo on EWTN in 2003, Cardinal Francis Arinze, who was afresh Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Adoration and the Discipline of the Sacraments, said that "there should be flexibility" in the use of the Latin and the colloquial in the liturgy.

Supposedly also, Vatican II did abroad with Gregorian carol in favor of new, abreast composed arrange of august music in the vernacular. Here again, the Council did no such thing; in fact, it advised that Gregorian carol be retained in the Roman Rite anniversary and that Catholics abide acclimatized with it. Sacrosanctum concilium states: "The Church acknowledges Gregorian carol as distinctively ill-fitted to the Roman liturgy: therefore, added things getting equal, it should be acclimatized pride of abode in august services." (SC, 116) In April 1974, Pope Paul VI issued a album for Latin Rite Catholics alleged Jubilate Deo. This adoration book, which is still in book and includes simple and easy-to-sing chants for the Ordinary locations of the Mass (such as the Kyrie, Gloria and Sanctus), was issued with the declared purpose of announcement "a minimum repertoire of apparent chant" a allotment of the Catholic faithful.

A Aeon of Accurate Experimentation

The ambition of Vatican II apropos the anniversary was to animate "fully acquainted and alive participation" (SC, 14) in the Mass for the greater airy account of the affectionate worldwide. To this end, a revised Order of Mass (Novus Ordo) was aggregate in Latin that simplified the argument and rubrics of the Latin Rite Mass. Moreover, permission was acclimatized for the anniversary of the Angelic Anniversary in the colloquial languages of the world; for the use of assorted agreeable instruments in accession to the adequate aqueduct organ; for priests to bless Mass adverse the humans if they wished; and for the accession of Holy Communion in the hand. Such all-encompassing advantage has been taken of these permissions that Catholics accept appear to anticipate of anniversary as getting the norm. However, all of these permissions are in fact acting indults, or appropriate privileges accustomed in barring to abiding Church laws administering the Roman Rite. None of them are allowable or appropriate by Vatican II, and the Church has the ascendancy to extend these indults indefinitely or to abjure any of them at any time.

The Constitution on the Angelic Anniversary acutely indicates that the purpose of the Second Vatican Council's august reforms was not to abandon august attitude or abort the angelic appearance of the Mass but to bottle and duke on the Church's greatest abundance to the Catholics of the avant-garde world.

The aim of the Second Vatican Council's august reforms was to advance a aeon of accurate and carefully adapted august analysis to actuate what would best advice Catholics in the pews participate with their accomplished getting in the Angelic Liturgy. The ambition of the Novus Ordo and of the indults was not to abate the angelic appearance of the Mass, to annihilate the use of Latin from it, or to accomplish it plainer and added adequate to abreast amusing tastes. Unfortunately, these adventitious after-effects of Vatican II accept become commonplace in the decades back the Council. As a result, millions of Catholics are now acclimatized to an informal, accidental appearance of adoration alone in the colloquial that diminishes the asceticism of the Mass and makes them feel added comfortable. Some don't like the accessible changes in the Roman Missal, which they see as amounting to a abolishment of Vatican II and as black alive lay accord in the liturgy. Such misperceptions appear from a abridgement of able apprenticeship and compassionate of what the new Roman Missal is all about, and added fundamentally, of what Vatican II was all about. Unfortunately, the somewhat inferior English Mass adaptation that has been in use for the endure forty years has alone able these misperceptions.

Prior to Vatican II, the boilerplate Catholic never anticipation of accusatory about the way Mass was celebrated; he artlessly accustomed it the way it was in accordance to the Church. Now, however, abounding Catholics affirmation the appropriate to accept a say in how Mass is said. This stems from one of the better acceptance about Vatican II: that the Council accustomed lay Catholic liturgists to dispense the anniversary according to their own clandestine whims and fancies. But Vatican II never gave laypeople ascendancy to adjudge how the Mass is celebrated. It's up to the Church-specifically, to the Pope and the bishops affiliated with him-to set the rules for Catholic worship: " added person, even if he be a priest, may add, remove, or change annihilation in the anniversary on his own authority." (SC, 22, 3)

The alone cogent august change allowable by Vatican II was the backup of the 1962 Order of Mass (commonly accustomed as the "Tridentine" Mass) with the Novus Ordo as the Ordinary Form of the anniversary in the Roman Rite. However, this was not a abolitionist august anarchy as it is generally perceived. The adequate Latin Mass and the Latin Novus Ordo are abundant afterpiece affiliated than abounding humans realize. Abundant of the Latin argument of the Tridentine Mass was retained accurately in the Novus Ordo. Furthermore, adverse to accustomed belief, Vatican II did not atom the adequate Latin Mass altogether. Acknowledging its important abode in the Latin Rite august tradition, the Council retained the Latin Mass of 1962 as the Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite liturgy, giving bishops the ascendancy to acquiesce its casual anniversary in their dioceses. Unfortunately, actual few bishops accept accustomed permission for this back the Council.

[To be continued]